Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to as hurricanes (western Atlantic/eastern Pacific), typhoons (western Pacific), and cyclones (southern Pacific/Indian Ocean) 1. Total Affected, all events MMWR, 199648 Acad Emerg Med. Monitoring poison control center data to detect health hazards during hurricane season--Florida, 2003-2005. Hurricane Frederic, 1979 Losses of life and material damage are significant due to strong winds, heavy rains, large swells and storm surges. Future studies on the human impacts of cyclones should be focused in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific, the regions where the majority of cyclone impacts occur. A total of 558 cyclone articles were retained for article review; 193 articles focusing on the impacts of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement were prioritized for abstraction. Rahman MO and Bennish M. Health related response to natural disasters: the case of the Bangladesh cyclone of 1991. Location(s) In particular, improvements in forecasting, early warning systems, evacuation and shelter procedures, and public education on safety precautions and post-impact hazards could reduce cyclone-related morbidity and mortality in future decades. Not reported Shultz JM, Russel J, Espinel Z. 14% of visits were relief workers, 34% were residents, and 52% were unknown; relief workers were 5.8 (CI:5.0-6.8) times more like to be treated in nonhospital facilities than residents. NR Not reported This paper describes the results for cyclones. MMWR, 199833 Smith, 200543 x These events cause damage and economic losses from a An increase in inflicted and non-inflicted traumatic brain injury was observed among young child in the 6 months following the storm. NR 2007;84(2):142-52. MMWR, 200541 When assessed by mortality category, the highest per capita GDP occurred in the no deaths category while the lowest was observed in the ≥100 death category (p<.001), suggesting that the cyclone mortality risk is concentrated in lower income countries. 2.89 (1.18-7.03) See http://www.jhsph.edu/refugee/natural_disasters/_Historical_Event_Review_Overview.html for the database of tropical cyclone events. The Tokwe-Mukosi and other successive disasters exposed the country’s lack of preparedness to handle disaster and assist victims. Telephone survey A cyclone is a low pressure area; where low pressure inside and high pressure outside the cyclone. Injuries were minor; the most common injury types reported were cuts/scrapes/scratches, animal/insect bites, and blunt trauma/bruising. Cyclone aftermath: research and directions for the future. NR Human Development Report 2009. Review of injuries that presented at the Houstan, Texas, Reliant Park clinic. NR Tropical Storm Allison, 2001 97.10% Hendrickson LA, Vogt RL, Goebert D, et al. The term cyclone is at times also used for a tornado, however that is not a technically sound practice. Assessment of the post-hurricane incidence of traumatic brain injury in children 19 and Dept. When combined with uncertainty in the historical record and the relative paucity of primary research focusing on cyclone impacts in heavily affected Asian region, conclusions that can be drawn about cyclones impacts on human populations are limited. 198 (53.5%) 37 Hurricane Isabel, 2003 In some cases inclusion criteria and definitions were not ideal which created difficulties in reconciling event lists. When examined by sex, an increased mortality risk among men was observed in the eight of the ten studies that reported deaths by sex; males accounted for 59.4% of US hurricane deaths reported (Table 6). x 70% were male. Relative risk ratios for mid-level mortality events were significantly lower in the European/Eastern Mediterranean, Americas, and Southeast Asia regions as compared to the Western Pacific. 46 McNabb, 199525 (2011). x Brunkard, 200858 Tropical cyclones are extremely efficient at rainfall production, and thus, can also be efficient drought busters. 0.317 Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Tropical cyclone, also called typhoon or hurricane, an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain.Drawing energy from the sea surface and maintaining its strength as long as it remains over warm water, a tropical cyclone generates winds that exceed 119 km (74 miles) per hour. Smith SK, McCarty C. Demographic effects of natural disasters: a case study of Hurricane Andrew. When aggregated, 54% of US hurricane deaths were classified as direct deaths and 43% as indirect deaths. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53(36):835-7. Marilyn and Opal, 1995 0 x Medical Examiner, Dade County, Florida Higher population densities in the Western Pacific and South East Asia where dense settlements in low lying areas are associated with increased risk of death in from storm surge 70,71. 53% (512/971) of the deceased were male. MMWR, 198613 6 633 Marilyn & Opal, 1995 6 drownings, 7 blunt trauma Eavey J, Ratard R. Post-Katrina mortality in the greater New Orleans area, Louisiana. 283 16 7543 5 x 1584 post-storm Cyclone Fani, one of the strongest storms to hit the Indian subcontinent in decades, made landfall near Puri, India, at 8am on Friday 3 May, with winds gusting at more than 190kmh. Population based survey 14 MMWR, 198917 x Health conditions and risk factors of sheltered persons displaced by Hurricane Katrina. 10 (2.6%) Dilley M, Chen R, Deichmann U et al. Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. NR 512 x Mahajani AG. Publish your original essays now. 0.999 (.999-.999) Hurricane Katrina, 2005 x NR Bern C, Sniezek J, Mathbor GM, et al. However, even with this under-representation the impact of cyclones is huge, with 466 million people affected, 412,644 deaths and 290,654 injuries were reported as a result of cyclones between 1980 and 2009. EM-DAT the International Disaster Database. Utility of geographic information systems (GIS) in rapid epidemiological assessments Physical injuries caused by the hurricanes were reported by 4.6% of persons in the hurricane paths and 3.8% not in the hurricane paths. x Facility, ER visits NR x Hurricane Katrina, 2005 The winds from a Category 1 cyclone cause minimal damage to shrubbery and trees. Shelter beds should be created to check soil erosion and speed of winds. Florida Centers for Disease Control. NR With the green shelter belt gone, the houses in the area where he resides have been, in the last two months, getting warmer. Hazardous phenomena are not only located on islands and coasts. Examines mortality factors in deaths reported by medical examiners in southern Florida Study Type Hurricane Hugo, 1999 22 Mortality surveillance for eight Florida hurricanes occurring in 2004 and 2005 Water sources were contaminated or cut and although Tongans are well used to cyclones, the damage wreaked by the category 4 cyclone had lasting psychological impacts as well as economic. Review of medicare claims (older adults) Future vulnerability to cyclones will increase due to factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement and changing weather patterns. 8 For cyclone impacts reported by EM-DAT, zeroes were treated as missing values because they were used as placeholders and their inclusion in the analysis could contribute to the under estimation of tsunami impacts. Andrew, 1992 An average of 37 tropical storms occur each season and they range in size from 100 to more than 1,000km in diameter and are known for strong winds and bands of torrential rain that revolve around the center or eye of the storm 3. 775 Residents had a higher proportion of falls and motor vehicle accidents and a lower proportion of unintentional injuries as compared to relief workers. Key word searches in MEDLINE (Ovid Technologies, humans), EMBASE (Elsevier, B.V., humans), SCOPUS (Elsevier B.V., humans), and Web of Knowledge/Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were performed to identify articles published in July 2007 or earlier that described natural hazards and their impact on human populations. 18 5 Not reported 147 (38.4%) Accessed November 29, 2009. 23 (8.2%) Reference 0 Indirect Deaths NR Male Future vulnerability to cyclones will increase due to factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming. x 43 (25.0%) Injury types included abrasion/cut/puncture and animal bites; no significant difference in injury was observed between individuals from flooded and non-flooded homes. x NR Decade While minimal data on cyclone-related injuries and mortality is available from less developed settings, it can be presumed that developing nations also bear the burden of cyclone-attributable injury where the frequency and severity of injuries are inversely related to degree of physical protection 69. Event and Reporting Information This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Every year, cyclones, typhoons and hurricanes affect dozens of countriesaround the world. Causes It is caused by a combination of strong winds driving water onshore and the lower atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone. Hurricane Iniki, 1992 2018 Table 7: Summary of Primary Research Articles with Injury Findings (n=27) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NR Lee, 199323 Taiwan is located in the western Pacific Ocean and experiences an average of three or four tropical cyclones per year. 3 Cut/pierce/stab (20%), fall (20%), struck by/against/ crushed (11%), bite/sting (9%), and motor-vehicle crash (8%). The authors have no competing interests to declare. Fax: 410-614-1419. Andrew, 1992 NR 9 trauma, 4 asphyxia, 1 drowning Not reported Storm surges and floods are the primary causes of death in cyclones 5. Minor trauma is common among the injured, including lacerations, abrasions and contusions, puncture wounds, and sprains and fractures 11,13,24,25,29,32,40,41,51,53,62,63. ⭐Main effects of tropical cyclones include heavy rain, strong wind, large storm surges near landfall, and tornadoes. 6 MMWR, 200034 Floyd, 1999 In the systematic literature review, 79% of the 946 included deaths where storm phase was reported occurred during the impact period. The after effects of Cyclone Fani, which destroyed the district and the forest in the region, are now impacting his daily life. ~19780 0.087 Tropical cyclones are among the most destructive natural phenomena. 0 NR 21 x Not applicable The mortality was greatest in the SEARO regions while only 8% of deaths occurred in the AMRO region despite accounting for 37% of all events occurring there. Effects of Cyclones. 25-5,432,375 The damage and deaths related to cyclones are the result of three major forces: winds in excess of 155 miles per hour; storm surge where the level of the sea rises as much as 10 meters and move ashore; and secondarily due to floods resulting from torrential rains. Eur J Emerg Med 2010;17:37-41. None Such was the case when Cyclone Gita struck in February this year. 181 0 NR Trauma/injury,** n=101, 14.6%; Vehicle accidents, n=30, 4.3%; CO poisoning, n=34, 4.9%; Fire/burns, n=17, 2.6%; Electrocution, n=12, 1.7%; Drowning, n=9, 1.3%; Head/neck injuries, n=4, 0.6%; Other, n=250, 36.1%; and Not reported, n=206, 32.0%. Philen, 1990***18 Europe / E. Mediterranean 2 motor vehicle accidents, 1 electrocution 9 I was in Northern Australia in 2011 when a massive category 5 cyclone with wind speeds above 300 kmh went through the area I was working at the time. Florida Medical Examiner and Dept. Cyclone Nargis, 2008 These storms are seen frequently at the far end of this summer. Hurricanes. Sharkey, 200757 Hugo, 1989 Pie graph of American tropical cyclone casualties by cause from 1970–1999 The effects of tropical cyclones include heavy rain, strong wind, large storm surges near landfall, and tornadoes. New York: UNDP, 2009. Median North Carolina 7 motor vehicle accidents, 4 falling objects, 3 fires, 1 CO poisoning, 1 fall. Examine post-Katrina rates and predictors of PTSD symptoms in New Orleans residents 16 38.2%, *direct deaths were assumed to have occurred during the event; **trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma, crush injuries, and deaths from falling objects/debris; ***excluded from mortality totals to avoid double counting of deaths report in other sources, Table 6: Primary research articles describing cyclone related deaths sex (N=11) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996 45(4):81-5. Females x Brewer, 199424 234 In the Eastern Pacific basin the season begins two weeks early on May 15th. Cyclones have significantly impacted populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas regions over the past quarter of a century with less developed nations in Asia bearing the majority of the mortality and injury burden. 3 falls, 3 fire, 3 vehicle accidents, 3 electrocutions, 2 plane crash, 2 trauma, 1 lightening strike, 1 asphyxia, 1 clean-up -27.30% 484 816 Trauma/injury,** n=101, 14.6%; Vehicle accidents, n=30, 4.3%; CO poisoning, n=34, 4.9%; Fire/burns, n=17, 2.6%; Electrocution, n=12, 1.7%; Drowning, n=9, 1.3%; Head/neck injuries, n=4, 0.6%; Other, n=250, 36.1%; and Not reported, n=206, 32.0% NR Vest JR, Valadez AM. Chowdury AM, Bhuyia AU, Choudhury AY, et al. Mortality Timeframe Mortality of Kauai residents in the 12-month period following Hurricane Iniki. Cumulative Impact of Tropical Cyclones, 1980-2009 In Gregg MB (ed) The Public Health Consequences of Disasters. Prevalence of all injury types increased post-storm; displaced storm victims were at increased risk for hip (OR 1.53, CI: 1.10-2.13) and other (OR 1.24, CI: 1.07-1.44) fractures. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity. 9 blunt trauma, 8 drownings, 1 head trauma Faul, 201179 1.03 (0.34-.3.06) Source: The Tragedy of Cyclone Idai and its Effects – The Zimbabwean 1.93 (0.73-5.09) Hurricane Katrina 2005 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. x 0.68 (0.32-1.44) 4 1988;81(11):1343-6. World’s Largest Collection of Essays! of Health The overall impact of cyclones on human populations is summarized in Table 2. 0 Hurricane Katrina, 2005 2-29,622,000. Hendrickson LA, Vogt RL. To estimate the total number of injuries, it was presumed that injuries occurred in events with reported deaths. 8 Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Analysis of the impact of cyclones on human populations is challenging given the paucity of data from the most affected regions, the occasional occurrence of extreme high mortality events, and the reporting inconsistencies including both lack of standardized definitions and temporal changes in collection procedures, completeness and accuracy of data. Katrina, 2005 NR Hurricane Andrew, 1992 15 x New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997. 0 (0) Norris F, Sherrieb K, and Galea S. Prevalence and consequences of disaster related illness and injury from hurricane Ike. (2009). 325 These comprise spiralling winds that are usually centred in areas that have low atmospheric pressures. Accessed September 2009 to February 2010 for abstraction of storm event data. Philen RL, Combs DL, Miller L, et al. Mean 1 35 (22.6%) ⭐Main effects of tropical cyclones include heavy rain, strong wind, large storm surges near landfall, and tornadoes. The Western Pacific region, where the highest proportion of mid- and high level mortality events occur, was used as the reference category for regional comparisons. NR Study Summary The distribution of the affected population was highly skewed: when reported on average 592,830 people affected per storm, but the calculated median was only 20,000 per event. In less developed countries females face a greater mortality risk 21,22. Not reported Ghosh TS, Patnaik JL, Vogt RL. 0 0.098 0.019 109 (29.5%) NR 40 Centers for Disease Control. The low-lying village of Popua is particularly vulnerable to the wind and storm surges. Marilyn & Opal, 1995 J Black Studies. 338 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005;54(39):996-8. NR Accessed March 4, 2011. Malilay J. Hurricane Hugo-related Deaths: South Carolina and Puerto Rico, 1989. Epidemiology 2009; 20(6):892-5. Mortality is concentrated in Asia, economic losses follow a similar pattern; however, total economic losses are greatest in affluent countries with developed infrastructure 6. Centers for Disease Control. x Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones. NR Males 0 56 (36.1%) Findings. Combs, 199626 0 MMWR, 200650 Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Injury data were available in 397 (36.8%) events, with a total of 290,654 cyclone-related injuries documented. 3 drowning, 2 blunt trauma They are very common in India because of its long coastline. 1.31 (0.54-2.66) Puerto Rico, Florida, N Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Males accounted for 65% of non-elderly deaths and 48% of the nonelderly population; 47% of elderly deaths were among males who accounted for 38% of the elderly population. ... human life and to the built environment. This often results in loss of animal habitats, interrupting and changing ecosystems. 0.519 NR 38 46 (12.4%) Sullivent, 200653 73% (40/55) of deaths were among males. 865 open wounds (55%), 196 sprains (13%) 148 contusions (9%), 122 superficial wounds (8%), 83 insect/animal bites (5%), 81 fractures (5%), 29 foreign bodies (2%), 23 burns (1%), 10 head injuries (1%), and 5 poisoning (<1%). For … 0.97 (0.92-1.02) Bangladesh Cyclone, 1991 In: Hogan DE, Burstein JL, eds. Longmire, 198412 Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review of cyclone events and a systematic literature review of publications relating to the human impacts of cyclones. Male v. When a cyclone does occur, rescue and relief operations should be in place. Additionally, some countries did not exist or have merged with other nations since the 1980s and many of the smaller island countries in the Caribbean are territories of European countries which necessitated the use of GDP, GINI, and development levels which may not be representative of realities in the cyclone affected area and/or time period. 4 Florida hurricanes in 2004 Prevalence of all injury types increased post-storm; displaced storm victims were at increased risk for hip (OR 1.53, CI: 1.10-2.13) and other (OR 1.24, CI: 1.07-1.44) fractures. 41.2 (6.7) Hurricane Isabel-related mortality—Virginia, 2003. Describes carbon monoxide incidents and risk factors, Describes effectiveness of post-hurricane surveillance activities in three counties of Mississippi, Post-hurricane surveillance of patient-specific data on injury and morbidity in greater New Orleans, Rapid assessment of clinical care needs, public health services, and housing assistance for San Antonio evacuees, Documents hurricane-related causes of injury using an active surveillance system, Describes the prevalence of acute signs and symptoms, chronic conditions, and risk factors those in shelters, Examine post-Katrina rates and predictors of PTSD symptoms in New Orleans residents, Needs assessment of the Katrina-displaced population arriving in Denver, Epidemiologic review for risk factors for mortality in Hurricane Katrina, Review of Hurricane Katrina deaths and risk factors in Louisiana, Comparison of pre- and post- Katrina mortality rates and causes, Mortality surveillance for eight Florida hurricanes occurring in 2004 and 2005, Mangrove ecosystems and mortality reduction in cyclones, Risk factors for injury during Typhoon Saomei, Injury and displacement among older adults following Hurricane Katrina, Child mortality following Hurricane Katrina, Injury and illness among Burmese patients presenting for care following Cyclone Nargis, Prevalence of disaster related illness and injury related to Hurricane Ike. A cyclone is a low pressure area; where low pressure inside and high pressure outside the cyclone. Tropical Storm Allison, 2001 Injuries accounted for 86% of non-fatal events. Male 925 Christmas 1974. 10 Virginia 592,830 Most common injuries were lower extremity fractures (21%), abrasions/sprains (16%) and rib fractures (12%). NR 0 McNabb, 199525 71 cut/stabbed (55%), 41 blunt trauma (32%) 13 falls (10%), 3 crushed (2%) and 1 drowning (<1%). 0.002 Journal of Emergency Nursing, 2011; 37:460-8. Location was a risk factor for injury in many reports, including administrative unit or location relative to storm path 42, within a city 24,25,44, and being outdoors 25. However, it is important to note that primary research on cause and timeframe of death as well as demographic and other factors associated with increased mortality risk is limited almost completely to the United States. It can send flying debris into houses. Publication At the same time, they are surrounded by high pressure. 13 New York, NY: John S. Swift Company, 2004. 2004 & 2005 hurricanes Included abstracts were coded for event type, timeframe, region, subject of focus, and vulnerable population focus. NR Andrew, 1992 Causes It is caused by a combination of strong winds driving water onshore and the lower atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone. MMWR, 198916 Hurricane Isabel, 2003 When reported, there was a median of 46 injuries per storm (mean=775, 5% trimmed mean=200, range 1-138,849) when the highest reported figure was used. Medical examiners and coroners, Florida and Louisiana Bangladesh Cyclone, 1985 The search resulted in 2,747 articles from MEDLINE, 3,763 articles from EMBASE, 5,219 articles from SCOPUS, and 2,285 articles from ISI Web of Knowledge. 2007;18(2):362-8. Katrina, 2005 Combs DL, Parish RG, McNabb SJ, et al. A historical database of significant cyclones from 1980 to mid-2009 was created from publicly available data. 15,199 (20,057). Death rates were higher among females, and this was more pronounced in the young and old. MMWR, 199630 Injury risk increased for all age and sex groups; open wounds and foreign objects injuries had the greatest increase post-storm. Regional impact of Hurricane Isabel on emergency departments in coastal southeastern Virginia. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Hurricane Andrew, 1992 Deaths associated with Hurricane Georges—Puerto Rico, September 1998. It causes harm to human, plant and animal life. Not reported Brodie, 200645 In the 30 year period between 1977 and 2009, approximately 466 million people were affected by cyclones; 20.1 million left homeless, 412,000 people died and 290,000 were injured, excluding an estimated 28,000 to 114,000 unrecorded injuries. Injuries accounted for 15.7% and 23.7% of visits at civilian and military free care sites; among service members, injuries accounted for 36.2% of visits. The number of events reported annually by NHC and EM-DAT increased over time as did the total number of events; NHC reported a lower number of events because their focus area is the Americas (Figure 2). MMWR, 200542 The Geographical Journal. The Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum (the Forum) commiserates with all those who were affected by the disastrous effects of Cyclone Idai in Mozambique, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, and Malawi. x Fig. Hurricane Andrew, 1992 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1992 41(35):641-4. 5% of patients had trauma/injuries of which 29% were directly related to the cyclone Bivariate tests for association were performed using chi-square for categorical and ANOVA for continuous measures. x Between Sept 12-Oct 11 (after active surveillance) there were 5,907 visits for injuries including 497 (8%) major and 5,410 (92%) minor injuries. Gagnon, 200540 Assesses cause of death and factors associated with mortality in Puerto Rico. About 65-75 cyclones arise in the world every year. Nonfatal injuries following Hurricane Katrina—New Orleans, Louisiana, 2005. Hurricane-related emergency department visits and storm impact on hospital admission rates 1-138,849 NR NR 10-99 deaths (n = 370) Kim H, Baik Han S, Kim J et al. Africa Brunkard J, Namulanda M, and Ratard R. Hurricane Katrina Deaths, Louisiana, 2005. Relative risk ratios for cyclone mortality from the final multinomial logistic regression model, using events with no deaths as the reference category, are presented in Table 4. Female There is no guarantee . Source: The Tragedy of Cyclone Idai and its Effects – The Zimbabwean A man stands next to the wreckage a vehicles washed away on March 18, 2019 in Chimanimani, eastern Zimbabwe, after the area was hit by the cyclone Idai. x 231 26 of 73 patients had lacerations and 11 had fractures. Rahman, 199320 New questions in Social Sciences. 0.006 0.999 (.999-.999) Tropical cyclones regularly affect the coastlines of most of Earth 's major bodies of water. Bangladesh Cyclone, 1991 Many people are left homeless, and without jobs to support themselves and family. Cyclone's centre often known as an eye, which is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure. CDC Surveillance data on mortality in hurricane Ike National Weather Service: JetStream – Online School for Weather. Combs, 199626 J La State Med Soc 2008;160(5):267-72. MMWR, 200439 20,160,878 71 cut/stabbed (55%), 41 blunt trauma (32%) 13 falls (10%), 3 crushed (2%) and 1 drowning (<1%). To assess risk factors for cyclone-related mortality the following categories were used: none (0 deaths), low (1-9 deaths), medium (10-99 deaths) and high (≥100 deaths). 198 (51.7%) Typhoon Saomei, China, 2006 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1992 47(42):897-8. 577 wounds (28%), 428 insect stings (21%) 279 sprains (12%), 241 contusions (12%), 177 fractures (8%), and 131 other injuries (6%), and 78 unknown (4%). Shannon Doocy, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Suite E8132, Baltimore, MD 21230. Hendrickson, 199732 – A cyclone that ripped across Mozambique and Zimbabwe has killed at least 162 people with scores more missing. 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