Scientists examine what chemicals make the Asian fruit smell like “turpentine and onions, garnished with a gym sock” The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic … 132, 1536. The flesh is thick, not solid, yellow coloured, and has a sweet taste. Estimation of Antioxidant Phytochemicals in Four Different Varieties of Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murray) Fruit Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf 1; Mohd.Jamil Maah ; Ismail Yusoff2 1Department of chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2Department of Geology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia chemaqeel@gmail.com The presence of PN4 improved the utilization of sugars but did not affect … were compared with snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) The mechanical and chemical composition of the two soil types found in the designated sites are given in Table 3. These three genera together form a clade that is characterised by highly modified (mono- and polythecate, as opposed to bithecate) anthers. The nectar and pollen of the durian flower that honeybees collect is an important honey source, but the characteristics of the honey are unknown. Correspondence Author: M.M. Chemical treatment, such as with alkali and silane, can be applied to the fiber surface so that the hydrophilic hydroxyl bonds can be removed (Wang et al. Pulut Durian or ketan durian is glutinous rice steamed with coconut milk and served with ripened durian. Results: The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). This review focuses on the chemical composition, potential uses, health benefits, and emerging technologies for the quality evaluation of durian, with the goal of providing information for its exploitation. [62] Dried durian flesh can be made into kripik durian (durian chips). [58] However, the ideal stage of ripeness to be enjoyed varies from region to region in Southeast Asia and by species. (KHCO3) is the dominant mineral in durian biochar. [87], a. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop. The fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres (12 inches) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and it typically weighs 1 to 3 kilograms (2 to 7 pounds). As an exotic fruit, durian is relished for its strong aroma and unique taste. [80][81], In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots used to be prescribed as an antipyretic. Durian is rich in dietary fiber, which makes it a good bulk laxative. Animals such as Sumatran elephants and tigers are known to consume durians. [11], The genus Durio is placed by some taxonomists in the family Bombacaceae, or by others in a broadly defined Malvaceae that includes Bombacaceae, and by others in a smaller family of just seven genera Durionaceae. [41] China is the major importer, purchasing 65,000 tonnes in 1999, followed by Singapore with 40,000 tonnes and Taiwan with 5,000 tonnes. Effect of manure and chemical fertilizer on vegetative growth of off-season durian production. [32][33] The fruit is medium-sized with oval shape, brownish green skin having short thorns. The chemical composition analysis of solid products showed that the cellulose and hemicellulose content gradually decreased. Try the Course for Free. 2006). [37] Malaysia and Indonesia follow, both producing about 265,000 tonnes each. The fruit is made of soft, easily digestible flesh made of simple sugars like fructose and sucrose that when eaten replenishes energy and revitalizes the body instantly. This review focuses on the chemical composition, potential uses, health benefits, and emerging technologies for the quality evaluation of durian, with the goal of providing information for its exploitation. The natives give it honourable titles, exalt it, and make verses on it. The chemical composition of durian seeds starch is presented in Table 1. [22], Some scientists have hypothesised that the development of monothecate anthers and larger flowers (compared to those of the remaining genera in Durioneae) in the clade consisting of Durio, Boschia, and Cullenia was in conjunction with a transition from beetle pollination to vertebrate pollination. (2012). Physico-chemical Analyses Proximate composition of fresh durian and the leather formulations were deter- mined according to AOAC (1984) methods: moisture (22.01 3), ash (22.027), protein (22.052) and fat (14.018). In Sabah, red durian is fried with onions and chilli and served as a side dish. [10] Durian consumers express preferences for specific cultivars, which fetch higher prices in the market.[23]. How does it put off such a rich array of offensiveness? In Java, the seeds are sliced thin and cooked with sugar as a confection. Among all the cultivars in Thailand, five are currently in large-scale commercial cultivation: Chanee, Mon Thong, Kan Yao, Ruang, and Kradum. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2017, 101 (21) , 7853-7863. [3] Unripe durians may be cooked as a vegetable, except in the Philippines, where all uses are sweet rather than savoury. [24] Since the 1920s, there have been more than 100 registered cultivars in Malaysia,[25] and by 1992 there were up to 193;[26] many superior cultivars have been identified through competitions held at the annual Malaysian Agriculture, Horticulture, and Agrotourism Show. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit, with over 300 named varieties in Thailand and 100 in Malaysia, as of 1987. In Vietnam, the cultivar, Musang King, is a common variety preferred by consumers. [12], Since the early 1990s, the domestic and international demand for durian in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region has increased significantly, partly due to the increasing affluence of Southeast Asia. The genus Durio has a complex taxonomy that has seen the subtraction and addition of many species since it was created by Rumphius. [67] The Malay name for the soursop is durian Belanda, meaning Dutch durian. [56] The thorny, armoured covering of the fruit discourages smaller animals; larger animals are more likely to transport the seeds far from the parent tree.[57]. Pang, Taylor’s University, Chemical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, No.1 ... hemicellulose, wax, and oil covering the external surface of the fiber cell wall [8]. A durian that falls off the tree continues to ripen for two to four days, but after five or six days most would consider it overripe and unpalatable,[3] although some Thais proceed from that point to cook it with palm sugar, creating a dessert called durian (or thurian) guan.[59]. Apart from the nutritional value of fruit, the presence of volatile organic compounds as well as phytochemical properties is also discussed. [3] The petals of durian flowers are eaten in the North Sumatra province of Indonesia and Sarawak of Malaysia, while in the Moluccas islands the husk of the durian fruit is used as fuel to smoke fish. Table 1 Chemical composition and solubility of durian peel Chemical composition in Fiber Dried Durian Peel Standard Ash content 5.5 TAPPI-T211-om-93 Alcohot-benzene solubility 13.4 TAPPI-T204-om-93 hot-water solubility 39.5 TAPPI-T207-om-93 1% NaOH solubility 54.5 TAPPI-T212-om-93 lignin (ash corected) 10.9 TAPPI-T222-om-98 alpha cellulose 31.6 TAPPI-T203-cm-88 beta-cellulose 6.8 TAPPI … In 100 grams, raw or fresh frozen durian provides 33% of the Daily Value (DV) of thiamine and moderate content of other B vitamins, vitamin C, and the dietary mineral manganese (15–24% DV, table). [51], The fruit's strong smell led to its ban from the subway in Singapore; it is not used in many hotels because of its pungency. After this, the samples were removed from the distilled water, blotted with tissue paper to remove excess water on the sample surface, and then weighed. However, the biochemical pathway by which the plant produces ethanethiol remained unclear such as the enzyme that releases ethanethiol. [50], People in Southeast Asia with frequent exposures to durian are able to easily distinguish the sweet-like scent of its ketones and esters from rotten or putrescine odours which are from volatile amines and fatty acids. [71], The durian is commonly known as the "king of fruits",[5] a label that can be attributed to its formidable look and overpowering odour. [1][14][15], Durio is often included in Bombacaceae because of the presence of monothecate anthers, as opposed to the bithecate anthers common to the rest of the mallows (and angiosperms, in general). subfamilies Malvoideae and Bombacoideae). Correlation analysis would make the selection process of lai and durian breeding programs easier (Saftner et al., 2008; Gadze et al., 2011; Eggink et al., 2012). It can be seen that durian peels have rich hemi-cellulose content. Composition of the Durian Peel Biomass Average relative chemical contents (dry matter) of the durian peel biomass analyzed in this study are shown in Table1. However, people have died from durian falling on their heads, especially young children. [42], The durian is a seasonal fruit, unlike some other non-seasonal tropical fruits such as the papaya which are available throughout the year. These features are typical of flowers pollinated by certain species of bats that eat nectar and pollen. were compared with snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) While Wallace cautions that "the smell of the ripe fruit is certainly at first disagreeable", later descriptions by Westerners are more graphic in detail. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. A study using durian peel waste gave a good result, like high carbon composition but had a low surface area. [3][10] In My Tropic Isle, Australian author and naturalist Edmund James Banfield tells how, in the early 20th century, a friend in Singapore sent him a durian seed, which he planted and cared for on his tropical island off the north coast of Queensland. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Yuyun Lu, Marilyn Kai Wen Voon, Jian-Yong Chua, Dejian Huang, Pin-Rou Lee, Shao-Quan Liu, The effects of co- and sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia kluyveri on chemical compositions of durian wine, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10.1007/s00253-017-8527-7, 101, 21, (7853-7863), (2017). [77] Nevertheless, signs warning people not to linger under durian trees are found in Indonesia. The leaf juice is applied on the head of a fever patient. Durian rind was collected from Phatthalung province, Thailand. Empirical Formula 19:22. sensory, physical and chemical composition of lai and durian cultivar were also studied. [28] Another hybrid, Chantaburi No. 1.1. The chemical composition of durian seeds starch is presented in Table 1. D. zibethinus is the only species commercially cultivated on a large scale and available outside of its native region. The authors of these studies hypothesise that monothecate anthers have most likely evolved convergently in Durioneae and in the Malvatheca clade (comprising Malvaceae s.l. "[47] Despite having tried many foods that are arguably more eccentric, Andrew Zimmern, host of Bizarre Foods, was unable to finish a durian upon sampling it, due to his intolerance of its strong taste. There is disagreement over whether this name, bestowed by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet. N GCV 39,45 25,65 14,38 7,4 5,2 43,92 6,01 49,07 1,0 14,68 d.a.f dry ash free basis, diff. 36. The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species. Each cultivar has a distinct taste and odour. Yuyun Lu 1, Marilyn Kai Wen Voon 1, Jian-Yong Chua 1, Dejian Huang 1,2, Pin-Rou Lee 3 & Shao-Quan Liu 1,2 Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology volume 101, pages 7853 – 7863 (2017)Cite this article. [23] The edible portion of the fruit, known as the aril and usually referred to as the "flesh" or "pulp", only accounts for about 15–30% of the mass of the entire fruit. [3] Among the varieties of D. zibethinus, Thai varieties are sweeter in flavour and less odorous than Malay ones. [50] The fatty acid composition of durian flesh is particularly rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid. Durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio.There are about 30 recognised Durio species, however, at least nine of which produce edible fruits. Table 1 shows the chemical composition analysis results for durian peel and fiber as reported by previous study [17–19] . Tempoyak refers to fermented durian, usually made from lower quality durian unsuitable for direct consumption. Abandoned Application number US11/208,148 Inventor Jesse Leverett Amitabh Chandra Jatinder Rana David Fast Stephen Missler … [5] Ikan brengkes tempoyak is fish cooked in a durian-based sauce, traditional in Sumatra. Yuyun Lu, Marilyn Kai Wen Voon, Jian-Yong Chua, Dejian Huang, Pin-Rou Lee, Shao-Quan Liu, The effects of co- and sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia kluyveri on chemical compositions of durian wine, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10.1007/s00253-017-8527-7, 101, 21, (7853-7863), (2017). The initial fresh fruit bunches ( FFBs) were chosen from palms of eight, twelve and eighteen years old ( 10 EFBs from each age group ). Replacing partial Portland cement by rice husk ash reduced alkaline pore water in the composite, thus, reduced breaking the link between the individual fiber cells. This study investigated the effects of temperature (20 and 30 °C) and pH (pH 3.1, 3.9) on kinetic changes of chemical constituents of the durian wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [27], The Malaysian Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry started to register varieties of durian in 1934. [50][53] Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate had the highest content among esters in a study of several varieties. There are currently 30 recognised species (see the List of Durio species), The durian (/ˈdjʊəriən, ˈdʊr-, -æn/)[2] is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio. Cellulose starts to decompose at … Es durian (durian ice cream) is a popular dessert in Indonesia, sold at street side stall in Indonesian cities, especially in Java. A discussion on the fruit of the durian (Durio zibethinus Murr).See also Absts. Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre ), 5% fat and 1% protein. In peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, the season for durians is typically from June to August, coinciding with that of the mangosteen. 1, a cultivar without the characteristic odour. In addition to the chemical composition, drying process had a considerable effect on the molecular structure of durian seed gum as reported previously . This study investigated the effects of temperature (20 and 30 °C) and pH (pH 3.1, 3.9) on kinetic changes of chemical constituents of the durian wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I'm going to write the molar masses over here, all in one spot. A portion of the valley is made up of collovial soil while the hill is almost entirely of Malacca soil with a varying depth of lateritic layers, the The growth shape of durian trees appeared to differ slightly among clones. It can be seen that durian peel and fiber contains lignin and hemicelluloses which is the primary cause of the change in the characteristics of the natural fibers in papermaking. Durian seeds starch is quite potentially being used as bioplastics due to starch contained in the starch extracted from durian seeds is quite high, that was 76.65%, with the ratio of amylase: amylopectin 22.34: 54.32. The expansion of the durian industry and the advancement in processing of durian products has significantly expanded due to international trade. Vitamin C contents of the leather were relatively high and ranged between 21.6-26.6 mg/lOO g. Water activity (Aw) of all formulations ranged between 0.57-0.62 and caloric content, 431 -473 Kcall 00 g. After 12 weeks' storage, all durian leather formulations were stable and showed low mold counts. It also helps bind and eliminates cancer-causing chemicals from the gut. Durian peel could be used as ruminant feed in silage forms to preserves the quality of its nutrient. The fiber content helps protect the colon mucous membrane by decreasing exposure time to toxins. [64], Tempoyak, made from fermented durian in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Tempoyak ikan patin, catfish in tempoyak curry, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia, Ketan durian, glutinous rice with durian sauce in Indonesia, Durian cake made of durian-flavoured dodol, Indonesian traditional sweet candy, Keripik durian Medan (durian chips) in Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia, A street side durian ice cream in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Durian Keju Bollen, a pastry filled with cheese and durian cream in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Durian cakes from Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre), 5% fat and 1% protein. [34] Notable varieties are Sukun durian (Central Java), sitokong (Betawi), sijapang (Betawi), Simas (Bogor), Sunan (Jepara), si dodol, and si hijau (South Kalimantan)[34] and Petruk (Jepara,[35] Central Java).[34]. Durian peel silage can alleviate a mal-nutrition in ruminants during dry season or flooding time. [67], D. zibethinus was introduced into Ceylon by the Portuguese in the 16th century and was reintroduced many times later. [10], In 2019, researchers from the Technical University of Munich identified ethanethiol and its derivatives as a reason for its fetid smell. [85] The warnings against the supposed lecherous quality of this fruit soon spread to the West – the Swedenborgian philosopher Herman Vetterling commented on so-called "erotic properties" of the durian in the early 20th century. Even apart from the smell, durians are a scientific marvel. [78] Strong nylon or woven rope netting is often strung between durian trees in orchards, serving a threefold purpose: the nets aid in the collection of the mature fruits, deter ground-level scavengers, and prevent the durians from falling onto people. [10] Since the bases of the scales develop into spines as the fruit matures, sometimes spineless durians are produced artificially by scraping scales off immature fruits. The Durian fruit is famous for being a botanical stink-monster. Hemicellulose starts to degrade at 200°C (5 min) into furfural, glycosilic acid, and acetic acid. Preparation of Durian Skin Nanofibre (DSNF) and Its Effect on the Properties of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Biocomposites ... CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MORPHOLOGICAL, SIZE AND DIMENSION ANALYSIS The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents in DSF and DSNF are presented in Table 2. How does it put off such a rich array of offensiveness? "[66] The Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta described durians in Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India published in 1563. [70], In 1949, the British botanist E. J. H. Corner published The Durian Theory, or the Origin of the Modern Tree. 1 Altmetric. The seeds can also be eaten when cooked. The effects of co- and sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia kluyveri on chemical compositions of durian wine. The durian fruit can hang from any branch, and matures roughly three months after pollination. Table 1 shows the chemical composition analysis results for durian peel and fiber as reported by previous study [17–19] . As mentioned in the Sambal Tempoyak is a Malay dish made from the fermented durian fruit, coconut milk, and a collection of spicy ingredients known as sambal. [28][84], The Javanese believe durian to have aphrodisiac qualities, and impose a set of rules on what may or may not be consumed with it or shortly thereafter. 6 Citations. [10], A common local belief is that the durian is harmful when eaten with coffee[44] or alcoholic beverages. The first thing we need to do is determine the molar masses of all the compounds in this reaction. [19] The fruit of many species has never been collected or properly examined, however, so other species may have edible fruit. DESCRIPTIONS. [42] Many consumers in Singapore are nevertheless quite willing to spend up to around S$75 (US$50) on a single purchase of about half a dozen of the favoured fruit to be shared by family members.[23]. His theory was that endozoochory (the enticement of animals to transport seeds in their stomach) arose before any other method of seed dispersal, and that primitive ancestors of Durio species were the earliest practitioners of that dispersal method, in particular red durian (D. dulcis) exemplifying the primitive fruit of flowering plants. 2, because EPO contains triglycerides oil, which is insoluble in water (Güner et al. Optimum mechanical properties of bioplastic from In addition to the chemical composition, drying process had a considerable effect on the molecular structure of durian seed gum as reported previously . [3][44][45], This strong odour can be detected half a mile away by animals, thus luring them.
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